Electrical Desk's is About Power Generation,Transmission and Distribution Systems
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About Electrical Desk


ElectricalDesk Author

About The Author

Mars Tagayun is a Professional Electrical Engineer. He obtained his PE license in 1984.

The author understood at an early age that electrical engineers must also be well versed in electronics and communications system since an electric substation or power plant will never be complete without power electronics, electronic control system, protection, and communication system.

He studied electronic design and had designed the following:

- An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) without internal battery or charger during the Philippines’ Power Crisis in the 1990s. He designed a dedicated external dedicated battery charger with trickle mode that can fully charge 2-150 Ahr N150-4D truck batteries in less than 5 hours making his UPS and the dedicated battery charger in demand since companies without generators have no downtime in their operations as it can last for more than 8 hours with two or three desktop computers connected. His UPS and battery charger are still working up to this time since he doubled the design rating of all power handling discrete devices. The Author also designed and winded all power transformers needed for his project since contracting this to a third party was too costly.

- A car headlight flasher. Unfortunately, the Philippine Patent Office sent an interview request to the author to defend his product only after more than 10 years. By that time 911 was already using the alternate headlight flasher making his device too late for patenting.

- A car burglar alarm with a small 12V rechargeable battery enough to trigger the flashers and the horn. Cut any wire and the alarm goes off. Remove the spare tire and the alarm goes off, cut the 12 volts car battery and the alarm also goes off.

- In 1992, when karaoke systems used the “bucket brigade” or bucket-brigade device (BBD), a discrete-time analog delay line, the author designed and built a digital echo system, the first digital karaoke in the Philippines in 1992 incorporated with an analog reverb line. The digital echo system had a High Q, 3-band, low-mid-high, parametric equalizer that offers more of a surgical precision when it comes to affecting the overall vocal tone. This feature enabled a singer to adjust the best settings for his/her voice. He abandoned this project because of the Philippines’ Power Crisis in the 1990s and redirected his resources to designing his own UninterruptiblePower Supply system with an external battery and charger.

Our Objective

Electrical engineering has many fields of specialization and some of them are: Engineering Management; Industrial Electronics; Instrumentation, Metering and Control Systems; Robotics & Automation; Signal Processing; Power Electronics; A&E Power and Lighting; Maintenance Engineering - responsible for the optimization of equipment for improved maintainability, reliability within departmental budget constraints and equipment availability - and many more field of electrical engineering expertise. Utilization voltages under A&E i.e., the voltages used in power and lighting loads is discussed only briefly, since we assume that an A&E electrical engineer is well exposed on this undertaking and is on this site only because a portion of his project has a high or medium voltage substation facility; and are not involve - full time - in the generation, transmission and power distribution grids.

Our focus, Electrical Power Systems Engineering, deals with power generation and its associated switchyard, transmission and distribution systems from high voltage to medium voltage transmission lines including its related switching schemes (substation configuration), system protection, metering and control systems.

We are not writing a book on this website, to do so would require us to have hundreds of web pages or more since so many excellent books and reference materials have already been written about power system engineering; and to repeat and ask for the authors' permission for it to be printed here would be a waste of time. Today, many electrical engineering books and reference materials that cost us a fortune in our time can be downloaded - free of charge - from the Internet, a gift, a present, from dedicated selfless professionals and experts in our chosen career who want nothing but to help us be better engineers.

This website gives the electrical engineer just a "little help" or thought. Electrical Desk is merely an information desk or probably just a mere compass tip pointing to what particular task one should focus his full attention on, in order to further his knowledge and skill about a particular electrical engineering specialty. We believed that even experienced electrical engineers can find some useful information from this site.

To make our site helpful for the engineer, we have focused our attention on providing him with salient pointers – just amply enough – to arouse his interest and enthusiasm in a particular field of specialization in power system engineering; because we have always believed that “Enthusiasm Makes the Difference” as Dr. Norman Vincent Peale aptly put it on the cover of his great book.

Our Undertakings

Transmission Lines and Substations

The author has a long exposure in the design and development of power plants, 230/138/69kV transmission lines and substations including its protective relaying scheme that considers the reliability of service at reasonable cost. The cost estimates, preparation of bid documents and conceptual drawings up to erection and commissioning of the proposed facilities also fall under his duties and responsibilities.

Power Development and Feasibility Studies

In the past, the author together with other engineering disciplines was into the planning of new power plants, transmission lines and substations and their least cost solution interconnecting the new systems to the national grid.

The construction of new power plants, transmission lines and substations during his time was dictated by the power development program, a document updated on a quarterly basis by all concerned government agencies namely: economic, energy, environmental - with the government-owned utility company providing for their evaluation and review feasibility studies conducted under the short-term 5-year or 10-year power development program.

When the construction of a new power plant is finally approved by the government's economic development authority, design engineers and consultants of the government utility company carry out final survey and investigation of the site. Engineering design and preparation of bid documents for the power plant and its transmission line's construction is carried out as soon as all field data become available. The start of construction is within 3 to 5 years or longer depending on the type of power plant to be constructed. The new plant is put on stream to meet the country's increased energy demand for the year it was forecasted and in step with its economic growth.

The author's scope of work covers actual field survey and preparation of at least three transmission line routes for evaluation of all concerned agencies. The addition of new power plant and its associated transmission line requires a “load flow analysis”, a computer based software that can simulate the actual flow of current and transmission line losses in the grid. The software determines the most ideal location of a new power plant with geographic and environmental issues seriously taken into consideration to determine - as much as possible - the least transmission line length and loses to the grid’s particular substation tapping point. Only the transmission line route and its load are evaluated for power plants dependent on fix hydro or geothermal source. The software is operated by utility personnel especially trained in its use.

Light Rail Transit System

The author's recent undertaking is in the design of incoming medium voltage AC feeder/s and DC traction power supply of Light Railway Transit system including its protection, control and monitoring to construction supervision, erection and commissioning.

Suggested Readings

For further technical information on each subject we discussed, we provided under the “Suggested Reading” column at the bottom of the pages downloadable PDF or Word files from external sites, which our visitors might find helpful. Some of these also were our reference materials.

My big big thanks for the support of my friends and former colleagues from the following firms:

- National Power Corporation - Electrical Design Division

- National Grid Corporation of the Philippines

- MIESCOR - Meralco Industrial Engineering Services Corporation

- Engineering and Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP)

- Pacific Consultants Co. Ltd.

- JPower/EPDC - Japan

- Areva

- ABB Philippines

- Mitsubishi Electric

- General Electric Philippines